# Class 12 Physics Chapter 1 Electric Charges And Fields

Class 12 Physics Chapter 1 Electric charge is a property of matter that can be used to measure how much it interacts with the electromagnetic field. Electric fields are produced by electric charges, while magnetic fields are produced by moving electric charges.

Electric charge is a property of matter that can be used to measure how much it interacts with the electromagnetic field. Electric fields are produced by electric charges, while magnetic fields are produced by moving electric charges.

## Class 12 Physics Chapter 1 Electric Charges And Fields

Topics and Subtopics in NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics Chapter 1 Electric Charges And Fields:

## Introduction

In this chapter, we will cover the basic principles of electricity and how it is related to the concepts of electric charges and fields.

Electric charges and fields are the fundamental building blocks of electricity. In this chapter, we will cover the basics of these concepts.

Electricity is a phenomenon that occurs when charged particles are separated by a non-conducting medium, such as a vacuum or air. The medium creates an electric field through which charged particles move in response to an applied voltage or current. These moving charged particles create an electric current that can be measured with a meter or used to power electronic devices such as smartphones, laptops, TVs, etc.

## Electric Charge

The electric charge is a fundamental unit of electrical potential and voltage in physics.

Electric charge is the force that causes two particles to be attracted to each other. The electric charge can be positive or negative.

## Conductors and Insulators

Conductors allow for charge transfer through the free movement of electrons. In contrast to conductors, insulators are materials that impede the free flow of electrons from atom to atom and molecule to molecule.

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When an uncharged object is placed very close to a charged conductor without touching, the nearer end acquires a charge opposite to the charge on the charged conductors and the two bodies attract. This is called charging by induction.

Charging by induction is a process that uses an electromagnetic field to transfer power from one coil to another. This can be used in a variety of applications, including mobile phones and electric cars. The most common example of this is charging your phone wirelessly using the electromagnetic field generated by the charger coil or the base station on your phone.

## Basic Properties of Electric Charge

Electric charge is the property of a material that causes it to experience an electrical force. Electric charge is measured in units called coulombs, which are defined by the electric current and voltage through a conductor. The SI unit for electric charge is the coulomb.

Electric charge can be positive, negative or neutral.

## Coulomb’s Law

Coulomb’s Law is a law that describes how the magnitude of the electrostatic force between two charged bodies is proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of their distance from each other.

Coulomb’s Law is used in calculating electric potential differences, electric fields, and electric potential.

The law also applies to magnetic forces between two objects.

## Forces between Multiple Charges

This section discusses the forces between multiple charges.

The forces between multiple charges are the interaction of two or more electric charges with each other. The forces are also called electrostatic interactions, and they can be either attractive or repulsive. In this section, we will discuss how these interactions occur and how they affect different materials in different ways.

Electrostatic interactions are due to the presence of electric charge on a material surface. When two or more objects with opposite charge come into contact, there is an electrostatic force between them which causes them to exert a force on each other.

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## Electric fields

The electric field is a physical field of force that extends from the positively charged nucleus of an atom to the negatively charged electrons.

Electric fields are responsible for many phenomena, such as lightning, magnetism and electrostatic induction.

In this section, we will discuss the role of electric fields in various processes in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering.

## Electric Field Lines

Electric field lines are a concept in physics. They are lines of electric force that form between two points and exist in a magnetic field.

Electric field lines can be visualized as blue dots (positive charges) and red dots (negative charges) that are connected by yellow dots (neutral charges). The yellow dots represent the electric field line’s point of contact with the ground.

## Electric Flux

Electric fields are produced by charged particles, atoms or molecules, that move through space under the influence of an applied force or voltage. Electric fields can also be induced by electromagnetic radiation such as light, radio waves, microwaves, and X-rays.

Electric Flux is a measurement of the amount of electric charge that is flowing through a given circuit.

The electric flux can be calculated by dividing the voltage by the current. However, in this equation, it is important to remember that the units are in volts.

It can also be calculated by multiplying the charge on one side of an electrode by its distance from that electrode and then dividing it by the distance between both electrodes.

## Electric dipoles

The dipole model explains the structure of atoms and molecules by stating that they are composed of two like charges, one positive and one negative.

The electric charge is responsible for the forces between particles, which are often attractive or repulsive.

Electric dipoles can be observed through the interaction between light and matter, as in the photoelectric effect.

## Dipole in a Uniform External Field

The dipole in a uniform external field is the most common type of dipole. It is also referred to as a parallel dipole, two-terminal dipole, or linear dipole.

A uniform external field is an external electric field that has the same magnitude and direction in all points of space.

The uniform external field is not the only type of electric field. Another type of electric field is known as a nonuniform external electric field, which has different magnitudes and directions at different points in space.

The continuous load distribution system is a system in which the charge is uniformly distributed over the conductor. For a continuous charging device, the infinite number of charges is closely packed and there is no space between them. Unlike the discrete charging system, the continuous load distribution in the conductor is uninterrupted and continuous. There are 3 types of  continuous charge distribution system – Linear Charge DistributionSurface Charge Distribution Volume Charge Distribution

## Gauss’s law

Gauss’s Law is a mathematical expression used to describe the distribution of electric charges in a uniform magnetic field.

The law states that the total charge enclosed by any closed surface is proportional to the total surface area of that surface.

According to Gauss’s law, the total of the electric flux out of a closed surface is equal to the charge enclosed divided by the permittivity. The total electric flux through a closed surface is zero if no charge is enclosed by the surface. Gauss’s law is true for any closed surface, no matter what its shape or size.

## Applications of Gauss’s Law

Gauss’s law is a mathematical expression that relates the electric potential to the magnetic field intensity. It is often used in physics to calculate the electric field generated by a current-carrying wire.

Gauss’s law can be applied to any system with an electric charge and a magnetic field. In general, Gauss’s law applies when the current density is much larger than the charge density in a volume of space, or when the current density and charge density are equal in volume of space.